中餐文化在英國

Deh-Ta Hsiung  熊德達

dehtahsiung thumbnailChinese cuisine has gone through thousands of years of refinement and development, and cultural exchanges between China and the outside world have taken place ever since the time of the Roman Empire.

中國菜系經歷了數千年的完善和發展,也經歷了自羅馬帝國時代起中國與外部世界進行的文化交流。 

 


Article

 

China being an ancient civilization, and Chinese food culture developed with it through its over 5,000 years of recorded history.

It can be safely assumed that in the remote beginnings of mankind’s existence, our primeval ancestors across the face of the earth, all led a life eating what has been described as ‘raw meat with fur and blood’ (茹毛飲血). There was no such thing as cooking until much later, when fire was discovered, and food was then ‘cooked’ but without any seasonings to speak of.

So it was many, many millennium later that cultivated plants and domesticated animals began to provide the bulk foodstuff for people, and the gathering of wild fruits, nuts, berries and other edible materials as supplements to the human diet became commonplace. Only then was a different ‘food culture’ said to have been created, with regional variations, which was based on the natural distribution of plants and animals from area to area.

Not until much later, when early civilisation began to develop in some parts of the world, did a form of cooking style start to emerge. Eventually, we had three main types of cuisine: Chinese or Oriental – which includes practically all of South-East Asia and Japan; Central Asian or Middle Eastern – which includes the India sub-continent and most part of Africa as well as the Caribbean; and European or Western – which nowadays also includes the New Worlds and the Oceanic. Each of these cuisines not only has its own distinct cooking styles, but also the way the foods are prepared before cooking and the manner in which the meals are served differ. For instance, the Orientals traditionally use chopsticks as eating utensils, while the Central Asians and Africans usually use their fingers and the Westerners always use knives and forks.

Chinese cuisine has gone through thousands of years of refinement and development, and cultural exchanges between China and the outside world have taken place ever since the time of the Roman Empire; and for hundreds of years many aspects of Chinese civilisation have been admired in the West and have influenced its cultural development. However, until very recent times, one of China’s greatest traditions, its culinary art, has been comparatively unknown. A gulf between Eastern and Western cultures has given rise to certain misunderstandings and confusions about exactly what Chinese food and cooking actually means.

In the early days of exchanges between the East and West, the few linguists there were could not be expected to be specialists in all the different fields, least of all in food and cooking. Given the advance and sophisticated development of the Chinese language; over many years the vocabulary of the West soon proved to be inadequate. Once a definition had been struck and passed into common usage it very quickly became established as fact, however misconceived its origin may have been.

Take, for instance, the very basic Chinese condiment known in English as ‘soy sauce’, I’m afraid that this is a big misnomer. It must have been a real puzzle for whoever was given the task of translating the Chinese term jiang (醬) into English, for there is no equivalent in any European language; to confuse the issue yet further, nor is there an equivalent term for ‘sauce’ in the Chinese language! Thus we have a series of misinterpreted terms from soy sauce right through to oyster sauce, shrimp sauce, mushroom sauce and so on.

In fact, the history of jiang or soy sauce can be traced back more than two thousand years ago. For centuries, it was considered one of the seven basic daily necessities for any household – the other six being fuel, rice, oil, salt, vinegar and tea (柴、米、油、鹽、醋、茶).

Now, if you substitute bread for rice on the list, you will see immediately how closely it resembles thecontents of the store cupboard in a modern Western kitchen. But you may say that you don’t always have a bottle of soy sauce at home – at any rate, you do not regard it as an indispensable item; I would suggest that if you substitute tomato ketchup, or Worcestershire sauce (both of which have an oriental origin), then you do use jiang as one of your daily necessities.

The translation of cooking techniques is another language minefield. Already the English language has to borrow foreign terms from the French, such as sauté and blanche to describe various cooking methods. Now when confronted with the unique Chinese cooking method chao (炒), generally rendered as 'stir-fry', most cookery books gave only the basic techniques without going into the finer points. However there are at least half a dozen different method of stir-frying in China, each requiring a particular process of preparation and a par-cooking beforehand, and the same is true for deep-frying, shallow-frying, braising and steaming.

What distinguishes Chinese cooking from all other food cultures lies not only in the preparation and cooking, but also in the serving and eating the food. A Chinese meal does not follow the conventional Western sequence of soup-fish-meat-dessert and cheese course. An everyday Chinese meal, whether served at home or in a restaurant, is like a buffet, with all the dishes (including soup) placed in the centre of the table together; everyone just helps themselves to whatever they like – not from every single dish on the table, but from one or two dishes at a time, and each person will be given a bowl of rice to accompany these dishes. Only on a formal occasion are the dishes served course by course, but even then they will appear in groups rather than singly, and with the exception of the soup course, never is an individual dish served to one person.

The reason for serving Chinese food this way is the Chinese division between fan (飯), grains and other starch food known as staples, and cai (菜), cooked meat and vegetable dishes. Grains in the various forms of rice or wheat flour (bread, pancakes, noodles or dumplings), make up the fan part of the meal; vegetables and meats (which includes poultry and fish), cut up and mixed in various combinations into individual dishes constitute the cai part. It is in the successful combining of various ingredients and the blending of different flavours for the preparation of the cai that the fine art and skill of Chinese cookery, its haute cuisine, lie.

While an everyday meal must be equally balanced between fan and simply prepared cai dishes, for a formal banquet the emphasis is shifted very much on to the cai dishes which are mostly lavish and elaborate. The rice at a formal banquet is only served at the end of the meal as a token offering, for by then, everyone is too full to want any starchy food.

There was no record of the exact date when the first Chinese restaurant opened in Britain, but the general belief seemed to be that it could be around the end of the nineteenth or early twentieth century, and that it was opened by a Chinese seaman in the Limen House in the East End of London. It served a few simple dishes primarily for the small Chinese community, and it wasn’t until after WWI that a few Chinese restaurants opened in the West End.

When I first arrived in England at the end of 1949, there were no more than half dozen Chinese restaurants serving Cantonese food in London’s West End; they were Cathay near Piccadilly Circles, Hong Kong in Shaftsbury Avenue, the Universal in Denmark Street, the Nam Tim near Charlotte Street, the Ley On’s in Charing Cross Road, and another one in Wardour Street. There were a number of Friends in the Dockland, and there might well be a few more dotted about in other parts of London that I was not aware of.

Then early in 1950, when Britain recognized the new Chinese Government, the old Chinese Embassy in London was shut down, and all the staff including the Ambassador were given the choice of either return to Taiwan to await for new postings, or be dismissed from the services with a sum of money; I believe that everyone took the money and stayed behind. At that time, Britain was still recovering from WWII, none of the diplomats were qualified for any particular jobs, so most of them decided to join together in partnership to open a chain of Chinese restaurants.

Partly because of the lack of ingredients, and partly because of the shortage of highly skilled chefs available at the time, the menus of the Chinese restaurants were very limited. I believe some of these new restaurants were struggling to survive, and the saving grace arrived in 1951 when The Festival of Britain brought a large number of visitors to London, which helped most of them to turn round.

From mid-fifties, Britain’s economy started to recover, and people started to travel abroad as well as large number of immigrants arriving from all over the world, in particular from the Caribbean, the India continent, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong. Chinese and Indian restaurants and take-aways mushroomed all over the place.

Here, I would like to pause for a moment and go back to China to give you a brief description of the type of restaurants there. We have basically four categories of restaurants or eateries in China: large establishments that cater for big banquets as well as small informal parties; restaurants without banqueting facilities but which offer food of high quality; then there are bistro-style small eateries with a limited menu; finally, the tea-houses and mess-halls or canteens.

When it comes to visiting a tea-house (the nearest equivalent to a café or snack bar), the main objective is to drink tea, usually without any food (although it is possible to order a snack or light meal in the form of dumplings, noodles or wantons and so on, in some of these establishments). But the Cantonese have developed ‘tea and snacks’ into a fine art known as dim sum (點心), literally meaning ‘dot on the heart’ i.e. a snack or refreshment, not a proper meal.

When the first wave of Chinese restaurants opened in the West, they were run by people who had migrated from the southern region of China (Guangdong and Fujian). Very few of these establishments employed really good chefs, or properly trained waiting staff, with the result that when a non-Chinese dined out at a Chinese restaurant there was never anybody with a deep understanding of Chinese food to advise you.  

To go back to my earlier remarks about the misunderstanding of certain Chinese food and cooking terms; plus the fact the Chinese penchant for hyperbole, thus the humble chicken feet became Phoenix claws (鳳爪); the dried tiger lily buds became Golden needles (金針); sweet corn is known as jade (玉) or pearl rice (珍珠米); and the simple soup of tofu (豆腐) and spinach has been given the rather poetic name of Emerald and White Jade Soup (翡翠白玉湯), and so on.

By the late fifties and early sixties, things started to improve in a big way, but only in the kitchens with Master Chefs and dim sum Chefs, but not the waiting staff, who seldom had formal training in services, let alone a good command of English. Furthermore, they were sometimes arrogant and rude-mannered. Somehow, well established names such as Lee Ho  Fook, Chuen Cheng Ku, and Jade Garden opened in the West End of London, with Cheong-Leen  the provision store in Lisle Street, Hong Kong Emporium, and Bombay Emporium nearby, this area soon became known as London’s Chinatown.

The growth of Chinese eateries did not just confine in London, but all over Britain, and not just in places like Liverpool and Manchester, but almost every single city and town all over Britain. Including Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, as well as Isle of Wight, Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands. Of course well over 95% if not 99% of these establishments served Cantonese cooking, with a few proclaiming they also serve Peking and Sichuan cuisine, but in reality, the chefs were either from Hong Kong or Singapore or Malaysia. Then a group of Chinese businessman pressured the Chef from the Chinese Embassy to defect, and set him up in a small restaurant in Willesden Lane, north-west of London, its speciality was Peking Duck, (but in fact it was Aromatic & Crispy Duck.) It soon became very popular, especially after Princess Margaret and Lord Snowdon were photographed leaving the restaurant.

Around the same time, the first of the Rendezvous chain of ‘Peking’ restaurants opened in Soho, this was followed by Lee Yuan in Earls Court Road in Kensington, which was owned by Mr E.K. Lee, a Manchurian and the former Military Attaché of the old Chinese Embassy. Lee Yuan served authentic Peking Duck, which was far more difficult to prepare and cook than the Aromatic & Crispy Duck; but the general public didn’t seem to know the difference between the two.

There were a very few restaurants supposed to be serving Sichuan cuisine, but the one I visited called Red Pepper in early ‘80s had nothing like real Sichuan cooking. In the late ‘70s, a businessman called Mr Lui brought a Sichuan chef named Tsao Bin over from Hong Kong and opened the Dragon Gate in Gerrard Street, which proved to be very popular. Mr Tsao trained several Cantonese chefs the fine art of Sichuan cuisine, and they subsequently opened new restaurants all over Britain.

Going back to late fifties and early sixties, when the fine art publisher Kenneth Lo started to write about Chinese food, it coincided with the new wave of superior Chinese restaurants, and Ken Lo formed the Chinese Gourmet Club, which held regular dinners in these new restaurants with menus selected by him. These dinners proved to be very popular, and they helped a great number of people to have a deeper understanding and appreciation of Chinese cuisine.

Although almost every Chinese restaurant has set menus for two or more people. I regret to say that the majority of these menus have been put together purely for the ‘foreigners’ (i.e. non-Chinese), without much regard to the structure of a genuine Chinese meal. I shall explain:

The standard set menu always starts with a soup – usually Sweetcorn & Crabmeat/Chicken, Hot and Sour, or Wanton; it is sometimes followed by one or two starters such as Spare-ribs, Spring Rolls, Crispy Seaweed and Sesame Prawn Toasts etc; then there will be a number of stir-fried dishes which invariably will include the ubiquitous Sweet & Sour Pork/Chicken or whatever, served almost always with Fried Rice; ending up with a dessert.

So what‘s wrong with that, you may wonder, for these are all the most popular dishes people enjoy eating. Let’s analyse the content of such a menu – to start with the Sweetcorn & Crabmeat/Chicken Soup is not actually Chinese – like Chop Suey, it is American in origin – and although both the Hot and Sour and Wanton Soups are the genuine article, all three are really too ‘heavy’ for a first course.

In China, soup is seldom served at the beginning of a meal. The customary practice is to serve a light, simply made soup throughout the meal – it is meant to act as a lubricant to help wash down the bulky and savoury foods, since we do not have the habit of drinking water (nor tea for that matter except in certain areas in China) with an everyday meal. Only on special or formal occasions, would soup be served as a separate course. Even then, it would only be served at the end of the meal, or between the starter and main courses, in order to cleanse the palate for the next course, so for that reason, the soup should always be very light and not too strongly flavoured or seasoned.

Although we do have ‘Sweet & Sour’ dishes in China, they should be very subtlety flavoured – never too sweet or too sour, and definitely not with chicken nor vegetables! Plain rice rather than fried rice should be served with the main courses. In China, fried rice (and Chow Mein) are never served with an everyday meal, only at a banquet.

In 1980, Ken Lo opened his first Memories of China restaurant in Belgravia, and he recruited Kam Po But as the Executive Chef; born in Shanghai, Chef But came from a family of distinguished chefs originated from Shandong, and was trained in the leading restaurants in China and Hong Kong, including the highly regarded Mandarin Hotel before moving to London in the late ‘70s, where he worked briefly in the Golden Duck before being spotted by Ken Lo, and together they devised the menu for Memories of China, and soon it became established as the leading Chinese restaurant in London.

In the following year, Ken Lo opened a cookery school adjacent to the restaurant, and he invited me to be one of the tutors, as I’d by then had written several Chinese cookery books, including one for Marks & Spencer. Around the same time, I was approached by the BBC with the view of doing a series of Chinese cookery programmes. I cooked two simple stir-fried dishes at their studio, and they seemed to love them, but a few weeks later, they told me that somewhere down the line, they decided that my English wasn’t clear enough for the average viewers to understand, so went to the USA and got Ken Hom instead. Years later, I met Ken Hom at a food exhibition in London, and he told everyone that he actually used my recipes - which was very flattering indeed!

While almost all the establishments were owned and operated by man or jointly by couples, it’s rare to find a woman as the sole proprietor of a restaurant. So Christine Yau is unique in that she owns the very successful Yming in Greek Street in London’s Soho.  Her menu is quite unorthodox – she would introduce a new selection of dishes each month, and if any items proved to be popular with her customers, then she would include them to the regular menu. Christine was also much involved with the Chinese community, and she was the driving force behind forming the Chinese cookery school at Westminster Kingsway College.

Tribute must be made here about the very enterprising Mr Wing Yip, who came to Britain from Hong Kong as a young man in the early sixties; although well educated, the only job he could find was working as a waiter in the Chinese restaurant. He sent for his brothers and tighter they opened a take-away in Clacton in Essex, and he noticed that almost every day, new Chinese eateries were opening all over the place, but there weren’t enough suppliers to provide raw materials and ingredients for them. So they opened their first Wing Yip super stores in Birmingham, the second one in Manchester soon followed, then eventually two more opened in London – the first one in north London, and a second one in Croydon.

What’s so unusual about these stores is that it is not just a big store, but a centre for all sort of amenities such as restaurants, shops, and other services. People come from far and near not just to shop for food, but also to eat, have a hair-cut, and buy clothes or other items etc. In my opinion, Mr Wing Yip’s contribution to the Chinese food culture in Britain far outstripped anybody else, because without his foresight of importing all the essential commodities, the Chinese food scene in Britain would not have be the same. 

 

繁體譯本

 

作為古老文明,中國有文字可考的歷史超過五千年,中國飲食文化亦伴隨這個過程而發展。

我們可以放心地假設,在人類剛出現的遙遠歲月裏,我們在地球各個角落的遠古祖先都過著茹毛飲血的生活。直到很久之後,人們發現了火,這才有了烹飪,食物得以被煮熟,不過那時並沒有多少值得一提的調味品。

因此,在許多千年之後,農耕作物和家畜才開始為人們提供大量食材,採集野果、堅果、漿果及其他可食用的物質補充人類膳食才變得普遍。直到那時,一種帶有地域性變化的、不一樣的 “飲食文化” 才被創造出來,而這些變化是由於各地動植物的天然分佈而產生的。

又過了許久,當早期文明在世界上某些地方開始發展時,烹飪風格才開始萌芽。最終,我們有了三種主要的烹飪類型:中國或東方烹飪——包括幾乎所有東南亞烹飪和日本烹飪;中亞或中東烹飪——包括印度次大陸、非洲大部份以及加勒比烹飪;歐洲或西方烹飪——現在也包括新大陸和大洋洲烹飪。這些菜系不但有各自獨特的烹飪風格,就連烹調前處理食材的方法和用餐方式也不一樣。例如東方人傳統上以筷子為食具,中亞人、非洲人通常用手指,而西方人則一直使用刀叉。

中國菜系經歷了數千年的完善和發展,也經歷了自羅馬帝國時代起中國與外部世界進行的文化交流。成百上千年間,中華文明的許多方面都是西方欽羨的對象,並且影響了西方的文化發展。然而,直到近期,作為中國偉大傳統之一的烹飪藝術才變得相對知名。東西方文化之間的鴻溝,導致人們對中國食物與烹飪的意義產生某些誤解和困惑。

在東西方交流的早期,語言學家寥寥無幾。他們不可能在各個領域都是專家,尤其是在食物與烹飪方面。考慮到中國語言的高度發達狀態,西方語言經過長時間累積起來的詞彙量並不足以完成對應的翻譯;這種不足很快就得到了證實。一旦某個定義被誤譯並傳入習慣用語,不管這誤解有多深,它都會迅速變成 “既定事實”。

比方說最基本的中式調味品醬油,在英語中被譯為 “soy sauce”,就是很明顯的用詞不當。無論當時是誰接受了這個任務,將 “醬” 字譯成英語,這都是一個真正的難題,因為在所有歐洲語言中都沒有 “醬” 的對應物。而更令人困惑是,“sauce” 這個英語單詞在中文裏也沒有對應的詞語!因此,從醬油到蠔油、蝦醬、蘑菇醬等等,我們有了一系列被誤譯的特定名詞。

事實上,醬或醬油的歷史可上溯至兩千多年前。在多個世紀中,它被認為是家庭日常生活最基本的七種必需品之一 —— 另外六種是柴、米、油、鹽、醋、茶。

此時,若將這份清單上的 “米” 換成 “麵包”,你便會馬上發現它與現代西方廚房儲物櫃裏的物品是多麼相似。不過你可能會說,你家裡並不是每時每刻都擺著一瓶醬油——不管怎麼說,你都不認為這調味品不可或缺;那麼我會建議你把同樣源自東方的番茄醬或伍斯特沙司(即粵語所稱的 “喼汁”)換入清單,這樣一來,醬確實是你日常必需品之中的一員。

烹飪技術的翻譯是另一個語言雷區。英語本身已需要從法語借用 sauté(炒、嫩煎)、blanche(汆燙、白灼)等外來詞,以描述不同的烹飪方法;現在,每當面對獨特的中式烹飪方法 “炒”(一般譯作 “stir-fry”),大多數烹飪書僅提供基本技術,並不觸及技術的細節。然而,在中國,至少有六種不同的炒法,每一種都要求特定的準備過程和事先部份烹煮的步驟,炸、煎、紅燒和蒸的方法也是如此。

中式烹飪與其他飲食文化的區別,不僅體現在準備和烹飪的過程,也體現在上菜和進食之中。中餐並不像傳統西餐那樣,按照 “湯—海鮮—肉類—甜品—乳酪(芝士)” 的順序上菜。無論是在家裡還是在餐館,一頓普通的中式飯肴就像自助餐一樣,湯羹和菜肴全部放在餐桌中央;每人夾取自己喜歡的菜式 —— 不是從每一盤菜裏都取一點,而是每次只取一兩樣菜,同時每人都有一碗飯搭配菜肴食用。只有在正式場合中才會逐一上菜,但那也不是一道一道地上,而是每次上幾種菜肴;此外,除了湯羹,其他菜肴是不會按個人的分量分別上菜的。

中餐這種上菜方式,是基於中國人對 “飯”(即被稱為“主食”的穀物及其他澱粉類食物)和 “菜”(即烹熟的肉類和蔬菜類菜式)的劃分。穀物被碾成米粉或麵粉,並製成各種各樣的食物(麵包、煎餅、麵條或餃子),這便是一餐之中的 “飯”;切成小塊的蔬菜和肉類(包括禽類和海鮮),以不同的組合形式煮成一道道菜肴,這就是 “菜” 的部份。中式烹飪的高度創造性、精湛技藝與烹飪藝術,在於對各種材料的成功組合,以及在 “菜” 的烹調過程中令不同味道水乳交融。

在日常膳食中,飯和簡單的菜肴必須均衡。然而在正式的宴會上,飲食的重點就轉移到那些通常豐盛奢華、精心製作的菜肴;直到宴會接近尾聲,大家已飽得不想再吃澱粉類食物時,飯才被象徵性地端上餐桌。

關於英國的第一家中餐館,我們並沒有其開張時間的確切記錄。不過一般看法似乎認為,那大概是在十九世紀末或二十世紀初,由一位中國海員在倫敦東區(East End)萊姆豪斯(原文作 Limehouse)開設,主要為小小的華人社區提供簡單菜式。直到第一次世界大戰之後,才有少許中餐館在西區(West End)出現。

我在1949年年底初次抵達英國時,倫敦西區只有六家供應粵菜的中餐館,即 Piccadilly Circles 附近的 “Cathay”、Shaftsbury Avenue 的 “Hong Kong”、Denmark Street 的 “Universal”、Charlotte Street 的 “Nam Tim”,以及查寧閣道(Charing Cross Road)與華都街(Wardour Street)的 “Ley On”。碼頭區(Dockland)有若干以 “Friends” 命名的中餐館。也許還有一些中餐館零星散落在倫敦其他地方,只是我不知道而已。

到了1950年年初,英國承認新中國政府之時,倫敦原中國大使館被關閉。包括大使在內的所有職員面臨著兩個選擇:返回台灣等候新的委任,或是接受遣散並領取一筆錢。我相信他們全都領取了遣散費,留在英國。當時英國仍處於第二次世界大戰後的恢復過程,這些外交人員無法從事任何特定的工作。因此,大部份人決定合作開設中餐連鎖店。

由於當時食材匱乏、技術嫺熟的廚師稀缺,中餐館的菜單極為有限。相信部份新餐館是在掙紮求存,幸而1951年舉辦的 “英國節”(Festival of Britain)為倫敦帶來大批遊客,拯救了許多餐館。

英國經濟自1950年代中期起進入復蘇時期,國民開始出國旅行;同時,世界各地也有大量移民來到英國,尤其是加勒比地區、印度次大陸、馬來西亞、新加坡和香港。中餐館、印度餐館及外賣店如雨後春筍般遍佈英國。

在此我想稍停片刻,把話題轉回中國,為你簡要描述那裡的餐館類型。在中國,餐館基本上分為四類:為大型宴會及小型非正式聚會提供餐飲服務的大型機構,雖無宴會設施但能提供高水準食物的餐館,菜式有限的小飯館,以及茶樓和食堂。

說到茶樓,那是與咖啡館或小吃店最接近的餐飲場所。儘管有些茶樓可能會提供餃子、麵條、餛飩等小吃或便餐,但人們上茶樓的主要目的是喝茶,通常不會以食物相佐。不過,廣東人卻將 “茶與小吃” 發展成精緻的 “點心”(dim sum)藝術。“點心” 的字面意思即 “心上一點”,也就是小吃、茶點等非正式的餐食。

在西方開設第一批中餐館的人士來自中國南方(廣東和福建)。這些餐館鮮有雇傭真正的好廚師或經正式訓練的服務員。因此,非華人顧客也無法深入瞭解並向旁人推薦中餐。

前文曾提及人們對某些中國食品和烹飪術語的誤解;再加上中國人對誇張修飾的嗜好,於是乎,廉價的雞爪變成 “鳳爪”,乾燥的卷丹花蕾成為 “金針”,甜玉米被稱作 “玉” 或 “珍珠米”,簡單的豆腐菠菜湯則被賦予頗具詩意的別名 “翡翠白湯”……不一而足。

1950年代末、1960年代初,情況開始得到極大改善。但這改善僅限於廚房裏增添的烹飪大師和點心師傅;至於服務員,則依然缺乏正式訓練,更別提他們的英語水平了。此外,他們有時還妄自尊大,態度粗魯。不過,倫敦還是出現了一些聲譽鵲起的店鋪,例如西區的利口福(Lee Ho Fook)、泉章居(Chuen Cheng Ku)和翠園( Jade Garden),儷人街(Lisle Street)的食品店 Cheong-Leen,以及附近的 Hong Kong Emporium 和 Bombay Emporium;這個地區很快就被冠以 “倫敦唐人街” 的名頭。

中餐館的發展並不限於倫敦範圍,而是遍及全英;也不只是在利物浦、曼徹斯特那樣的地方,而是在英國幾乎每一個城鎮。蘇格蘭、威爾士、北愛爾蘭以及維特島 (Isle of Wight)、曼島(Isle of Man)、海峽群島(Channel Islands)都有了中餐館的身影。當然,這些餐館,如果不是99%,也有95%以上供應的都是粵菜。其中有一小部分聲稱供應京菜和川菜,不過它們的廚師其實來自香港、新加坡或馬來西亞。其後,一批華商遊說中國大使館的一位廚師離職,並在倫敦西北部的 Willesden Lane 為他開設了一家小餐館。這館子以北京鴨為賣點(其實出產的卻是香酥鴨),很快便大受歡迎。瑪格麗特公主(Princess Margaret)與斯諾頓勳爵(Lord Snowdon)用餐後離去的一瞬被人拍到,這照片更為餐館增添了名氣。

大約在同一時期,Rendezvous “京菜” 連鎖店在倫敦蘇豪(Soho)開設了旗下第一家餐館。接著,前中國大使館武官、滿族人李思國先生(E.K. Lee)在肯辛頓(Kensington)的 Earls Court Road 開設了李園(Lee Yuan),供應正宗的北京鴨。北京鴨的準備和製作工藝比香酥鴨難得多,但普羅大眾似乎並不清楚兩者之間的區別。

那時只有極少數餐館供應川菜,但我在1980年代初光顧過的 “Red Pepper”,其出品與真正的四川烹飪毫無關聯。1970年代末,商人劉先生(Mr Lui)從香港請來川菜廚師左賓(Tsao Bin),在爵祿坊(Gerrard Street)開設了龍門樓(Dragon Gate),他的餐館極受歡迎。左先生將川菜烹飪技藝傳授給幾位粵菜廚師,他們後來就在英國各地開設新的餐館。

回到1950年代末、1960年代初,藝術出版商羅孝建(Kenneth Lo)開始撰寫中餐方面的書籍。那時恰逢高級中餐館新浪潮出現,羅孝建成立中華美食家俱樂部(Chinese Gourmet Club),在這些新餐館裏定期舉辦晚宴,功能表由他自己選定。這種非常流行的晚宴,幫助許多人更好地認識和欣賞中餐。

幾乎每一家中餐館都設有二人或二人以上的套餐,但遺憾的是,這些套餐絕大多數是為 “外國人”(非華人)拼湊而成的,並沒有考慮到真正中餐的結構。下面我將就此作出解釋:

一般的套餐總是先上湯——通常都是玉米蟹肉或雞肉湯、酸辣湯或雲吞(餛飩);有時再加一兩道頭盤,例如京都骨、春捲、脆海藻和芝麻蝦多士。然後是幾樣一成不變的炒菜,包括那無所不在的咕嚕肉、咕嚕雞或其他甜酸菜式,而且總是配以炒飯。最後以甜品結束。

你也許感到疑惑:這些都是人們最喜歡吃的菜式,有什麼不對嗎?讓我們來分析一下這種功能表的內容——最先上桌的玉米蟹肉或雞肉湯,並非真正的中式湯羹,而是和 “雜碎” 一樣源自美國。雖然酸辣湯和雲吞湯確實是真正的中餐,但這三種湯羹作為第一道菜都太濃膩了。

在中國,人們很少在一頓飯的開頭就喝湯。習慣上,清淡簡單的湯水伴隨著吃飯的全過程——湯的使命就是作為潤滑劑,幫助大塊、鹹辣的食物滑下食道,因為我們不習慣在吃便餐的時候喝水或喝茶(只有在中國某些地區有飯間喝茶的習慣)。只有在特殊或正式場合,湯才會作為一道獨立的菜被奉上餐桌;即便如此,那也是在 飯後才上桌,又或是在頭盤與主菜之間,以清洗味蕾、迎接下一道菜。因此,湯總是很清淡,不宜調入重味。

儘管我們在中國確實有 “甜酸” 菜式,但那應該是經過細緻調味的——決不會太甜或太酸,更不會以雞或蔬菜烹製!主菜配以白飯而非炒飯。在中國,炒飯(以及炒麵)只在筵席上出現,是不會與便餐搭配的。

1980年,羅孝建在 Belgravia 開設他的首家 “憶華樓”,並聘請畢金寶為行政總廚。畢師傅出身自名廚世家,祖籍山東,生於上海。他在中國和香港的一流餐館裏接受訓練,包括備受推崇的 Mandarin Hotel。1970年代末,他移居倫敦,其後主要在 Golden Duck 工作,直到被羅孝建發掘並共同設計 “憶華樓” 的菜單。很快 “憶華樓” 就成為倫敦首屈一指的中餐館。

第二年,羅孝建在餐館旁邊建起烹飪學校。那時我已撰寫了幾本中餐烹飪書,其中一本還是為瑪莎百貨(Marks & Spencer)而寫,因此羅孝建邀請我加入其學校的導師隊伍。大約同時,英國廣播公司(BBC)也與我商談舉辦一個中餐烹飪系列節目的事宜。我在他們的演播室裏炒了兩個簡單的菜式,他們似乎對此頗為滿意。然而在數週後的某個階段,他們說我的英語不夠清晰,一般觀眾難以聽懂,故而改去美國邀請譚榮輝(Ken Hom)主持該節目。多年後,我在倫敦的一個食物展覽上遇到譚榮輝,他告訴大家當時他使用的正是我的食譜——這真是對我極大的抬舉!

當幾乎所有中餐館都由男性或夫妻檔開設、經營時,女性獨資經營者真是稀罕之極。因此,在倫敦蘇豪希臘街(Greek Street)擁有 “Yming” 餐館的 Christine Yau,可謂獨樹一幟。明苑(Yming)十分成功,而其菜單並不是很正統 —— 每個月,Christine Yau 都會推出一組新菜式。如果當中有哪些菜式受到顧客歡迎,她就會將其加入常規菜單。Christine 也積極參與華人社區事務,並推動 Westminster Kingsway College 成立了中餐烹飪學校。

在此,必須向極有魄力的葉煥榮先生致敬。1960年代初,他從香港來到英國時還是一名年青人。儘管接受過良好教育,他只能找到在中餐館裏當侍應生的工作。 他把兩個弟弟也叫到英國,在 Essex 的 Clacton 一起開了一家外賣店。他注意到,各地幾乎每天都有新的中餐館出現,但卻沒有足夠的供應商為之提供原材料。因此,他們在伯明罕成立了第一家 “榮業行”,其後 很快又在曼徹斯特增設第二家,最終還在倫敦北部及蓋萊頓(Croydon)先後再開兩家分店。

這些店鋪的獨特之處在於,它們不單是大型商店,而是集餐館、商店及其他服務等各種便利設施於一體的商業中心。來自四面八方的顧客來到這裡不止是爲了採購食品,更是爲了用餐、理髮、買衣服或其他東西。在我看來,葉煥榮先生對英國中餐文化的貢獻遠遠超過其他人,因為如果沒有他對進口一切必需品的遠見,英國中餐就不會有今天的景象。

 

简体译本

 

作为古老文明,中国有文字可考的历史超过五千年,中国饮食文化亦伴随这个过程而发展。

我们可以放心地假设,在人类刚出现的遥远岁月里,我们在地球各个角落的远古祖先都过着茹毛饮血的生活。直到很久之后,人们发现了火,这才有了烹饪,食物得以被煮熟,不过那时并没有多少值得一提的调味品。

因此,在许多千年之后,农耕作物和家畜才开始为人们提供大量食材,采集野果、坚果、浆果及其它可食用的物质补充人类膳食才变得普遍。直到那时,一种带有地域性变化的、不一样的 “饮食文化” 才被创造出来,而这些变化是由于各地动植物的天然分布而产生的。

又过了许久,当早期文明在世界上某些地方开始发展时,烹饪风格才开始萌芽。最终,我们有了三种主要的烹饪类型:中国或东方烹饪——包括几乎所有东南亚烹饪和日本烹饪;中亚或中东烹饪——包括印度次大陆、非洲大部份以及加勒比烹饪;欧洲或西方烹饪——现在也包括新大陆和大洋洲烹饪。这些菜系不但有各自独特的烹饪风格,就连烹调前处理食材的方法和用餐方式也不一样。例如东方人传统上以筷子为餐具,中亚人、非洲人通常用手指,而西方人则一直使用刀叉。

中国菜系经历了数千年的完善和发展,也经历了自罗马帝国时代起中国与外部世界进行的文化交流。成百上千年间,中华文明的许多方面都是西方钦羡的对象,并且影响了西方的文化发展。然而,直到近期,作为中国伟大传统之一的烹饪艺术才变得相对知名。东西方文化之间的鸿沟,导致人们对中国食物与烹饪的意义产生某些误解和困惑。

在东西方交流的早期,语言学家寥寥无几。他们不可能在各个领域都是专家,尤其是在食物与烹饪方面。考虑到中国语言的高度发达状态,西方语言经过长时间累积起来的词汇量并不足以完成对应的翻译;这种不足很快就得到了证实。一旦某个定义被误译并传入习惯用语,不管这误解有多深,它都会迅速变成 “既定事实”。

比方说最基本的中式调味品酱油,在英语中被译为 “soy sauce”,就是很明显的用词不当。无论当时是谁接受了这个任务,将 “酱” 字译成英语,这都是一个真正的难题,因为在所有欧洲语言中都没有 “酱” 的对应物。而更令人困惑是,“sauce” 这个英语单词在中文里也没有对应的词语!因此,从酱油到蚝油、虾酱、蘑菇酱等等,我们有了一系列被误译的特定名词。

事实上,酱或酱油的历史可上溯至两千多年前。在多个世纪中,它被认为是家庭日常生活最基本的七种必需品之一 —— 另外六种是柴、米、油、盐、醋、茶。

此时,若将这份清单上的 “米” 换成 “面包”,你便会马上发现它与现代西方厨房储物柜里的物品是多么相似。不过你可能会说,你家里并不是每时每刻都摆着一瓶酱油——不管怎么说,你都不认为这调味品不可或缺;那么我会建议你把同样源自东方的西红柿酱或伍斯特沙司(即粤语所称的 “喼汁”)换入清单,这样一来,酱确实是你日常必需品之中的一员。

烹饪技术的翻译是另一个语言雷区。英语本身已需要从法语借用 sauté(炒、嫩煎)、blanche(汆烫、白灼)等外来词,以描述不同的烹饪方法;现在,每当面对独特的中式烹饪方法 “炒”(一般译作 “stir-fry”),大多数烹饪书仅提供基本技术,并不触及技术的细节。然而,在中国,至少有六种不同的炒法,每一种都要求特定的准备过程和事先部份烹煮的步骤, 炸、煎、红烧和蒸的方法也是如此。

中式烹饪与其它饮食文化的区别,不仅体现在准备和烹饪的过程,也体现在上菜和进食之中。中餐并不像传统西餐那样,按照 “汤—海鲜—肉类—甜品—奶酪(芝士)” 的顺序上菜。无论是在家里还是在餐馆,一顿普通的中式饭肴就像自助餐一样,汤羹和菜肴全部放在餐桌中央;每人夹取自己喜欢的菜式 —— 不是从每一盘菜里都取一点,而是每次只取一两样菜,同时每人都有一碗饭搭配菜肴食用。只有在正式场合中才会逐一上菜,但那也不是一道一道地上,而是每次上几种菜肴;此外,除了汤羹,其它菜肴是不会按个人的分量分别上菜的。

中餐这种上菜方式,是基于中国人对 “饭”(即被称为 “主食” 的谷物及其它淀粉类食物)和 “菜”(即烹熟的肉类和蔬菜类菜式)的划分。谷物被碾成米粉或面粉,并制成各种各样的食物(面包、煎饼、面条或饺子),这便是一餐之中的 “饭”;切成小块的蔬菜和肉类(包括禽类和海鲜),以不同的组合形式煮成一道道菜肴,这就是 “菜” 的部份。中式烹饪的高度创造性、精湛技艺与烹饪艺术,在于对各种材料的成功组合,以及在 “菜” 的烹调过程中令不同味道水乳交融。

在日常膳食中,饭和简单的菜肴必须均衡。然而在正式的宴会上,饮食的重点就转移到那些通常丰盛奢华、精心制作的菜肴;直到宴会接近尾声,大家已饱得不想再吃淀粉类食物时,饭才被象征性地端上餐桌。

关于英国的第一家中餐馆,我们并没有其开张时间的确切记录。不过一般看法似乎认为,那大概是在十九世纪末或二十世纪初,由一位中国海员在伦敦东区 (East End)莱姆豪斯(原文作 Limehouse)开设,主要为小小的华人社区提供简单菜式。直到第一次世界大战之后,才有少许中餐馆在西区(West End)出现。

我在1949年年底初次抵达英国时,伦敦西区只有六家供应粤菜的中餐馆,即 Piccadilly Circles 附近的 “Cathay”、Shaftsbury Avenue的 “Hong Kong”、Denmark Street 的 “Universal”、Charlotte Street 的 “Nam Tim”,以及查宁阁道(Charing Cross Road)与华都街(Wardour Street)的 “Ley On”。码头区(Dockland)有若干以“Friends”命名的中餐馆。也许还有一些中餐馆零星散落在伦敦其它地方,只是我不知道而已。

到了1950年年初,英国承认新中国政府之时,伦敦原中国大使馆被关闭。包括大使在内的所有职员面临着两个选择:返回台湾等候新的委任,或是接受遣散并领取一笔钱。我相信他们全都领取了遣散费,留在英国。当时英国仍处于第二次世界大战后的恢复过程,这些外交人员无法从事任何特定的工作。因此,大部份人决定合作开设中餐连锁店。

由于当时食材匮乏、技术娴熟的厨师稀缺,中餐馆的菜单极为有限。相信部份新餐馆是在挣扎求存,幸而1951年举办的 “英国节”(Festival of Britain)为伦敦带来大批游客,拯救了许多餐馆。

英国经济自1950年代中期起进入复苏时期,国民开始出国旅行;同时,世界各地也有大量移民来到英国,尤其是加勒比地区、印度次大陆、马来西亚、新加坡和香港。中餐馆、印度餐馆及外卖店如雨后春笋般遍布英国。

在此我想稍停片刻,把话题转回中国,为你简要描述那里的餐馆类型。在中国,餐馆基本上分为四类:为大型宴会及小型非正式聚会提供餐饮服务的大型机构,虽无宴会设施但能提供高水平食物的餐馆,菜式有限的小饭馆,以及茶楼和食堂。

说到茶楼,那是与咖啡馆或小吃店最接近的餐饮场所。尽管有些茶楼可能会提供饺子、面条、馄饨等小吃或便餐,但人们上茶楼的主要目的是喝茶,通常不会以食物相佐。不过,广东人却将 “茶与小吃” 发展成精致的 “点心”(dim sum)艺术。“点心” 的字面意思即 “心上一点”,也就是小吃、茶点等非正式的餐食。

在西方开设第一批中餐馆的人士来自中国南方(广东和福建)。这些餐馆鲜有雇佣真正的好厨师或经正式训练的服务员。因此,非华人顾客也无法深入了解并向旁人推荐中餐。

前文曾提及人们对某些中国食品和烹饪术语的误解;再加上中国人对夸张修饰的嗜好,于是乎,廉价的鸡爪变成 “凤爪”,干燥的卷丹花蕾成为 “金针”,甜玉米被称作 “玉” 或 “珍珠米”,简单的豆腐菠菜汤则被赋予颇具诗意的别名 “翡翠白汤”……不一而足。

1950年代末、1960年代初,情况开始得到极大改善。但这改善仅限于厨房里增添的烹饪大师和点心师傅;至于服务员,则依然缺乏正式训练,更别提他们的英语水平了。此外,他们有时还妄自尊大,态度粗鲁。不过,伦敦还是出现了一些声誉鹊起的店铺,例如西区的利口福(Lee Ho Fook)、泉章居(Chuen Cheng Ku)和翠园( Jade Garden),俪人街(Lisle Street)的食品店 Cheong-Leen,以及附近的 Hong Kong Emporium 和 Bombay Emporium;这个地区很快就被冠以 “伦敦唐人街” 的名头。

中餐馆的发展并不限于伦敦范围,而是遍及全英;也不只是在利物浦、曼彻斯特那样的地方,而是在英国几乎每一个城镇。苏格兰、威尔士、北爱尔兰以及怀特岛 (Isle of Wight)、曼岛(Isle of Man)、海峡群岛(Channel Islands)都有了中餐馆的身影。当然,这些餐馆,如果不是99%,也有95%以上供应的都是粤菜。其中有一小部分声称供应京菜和川菜,不过它们的厨师其实来自香港、新加坡或马来西亚。其后,一批华商游说中国大使馆的一位厨师离职,并在伦敦西北部的 Willesden Lane 为他开设了一家小餐馆。这馆子以北京鸭为卖点(其实出产的却是香酥鸭),很快便大受欢迎。玛格丽特公主(Princess Margaret)与斯诺顿勋爵(Lord Snowdon)用餐后离去的一瞬被人拍到,这照片更为餐馆增添了名气。

大约在同一时期,Rendezvous “京菜” 连锁店在伦敦苏豪(Soho)开设了旗下第一家餐馆。接着,前中国大使馆武官、满族人李思国先生(E.K. Lee)在肯辛顿(Kensington)的 Earls Court Road 开设了李园(Lee Yuan),供应正宗的北京鸭。北京鸭的准备和制作工艺比香酥鸭难得多,但普罗大众似乎并不清楚两者之间的区别。

那时只有极少数餐馆供应川菜,但我在1980年代初光顾过的 “Red Pepper”,其出品与真正的四川烹饪毫无关联。1970年代末,商人刘先生(Mr Lui)从香港请来川菜厨师左宾(Tsao Bin),在爵禄坊(Gerrard Street)开设了龙门楼(Dragon Gate),他的餐馆极受欢迎。左先生将川菜烹饪技艺传授给几位粤菜厨师,他们后来就在英国各地开设新的餐馆。

回到1950年代末、1960年代初,艺术出版商罗孝建(Kenneth Lo)开始撰写中餐方面的书籍。那时恰逢高级中餐馆新浪潮出现,罗孝建成立中华美食家俱乐部(Chinese Gourmet Club),在这些新餐馆里定期举办晚宴,菜单由他自己选定。这种非常流行的晚宴,帮助许多人更好地认识和欣赏中餐。

几乎每一家中餐馆都设有二人或二人以上的套餐,但遗憾的是,这些套餐绝大多数是为 “外国人”(非华人)拼凑而成的,并没有考虑到真正中餐的结构。下面我将就此作出解释:

一般的套餐总是先上汤——通常都是玉米蟹肉或鸡肉汤、酸辣汤或云吞(馄饨);有时再加一两道头盘,例如京都骨、春卷、脆海藻和芝麻虾多士。然后是几样一成不变的炒菜,包括那无所不在的咕噜肉、咕噜鸡或其它甜酸菜式,而且总是配以炒饭。最后以甜品结束。

你也许感到疑惑:这些都是人们最喜欢吃的菜式,有什么不对吗?让我们来分析一下这种菜单的内容——最先上桌的玉米蟹肉或鸡肉汤,并非真正的中式汤羹,而是和 “杂碎” 一样源自美国。虽然酸辣汤和云吞汤确实是真正的中餐,但这三种汤羹作为第一道菜都太浓腻了。

在中国,人们很少在一顿饭的开头就喝汤。习惯上,清淡简单的汤水伴随着吃饭的全过程——汤的使命就是作为润滑剂,帮助大块、咸辣的食物滑下食道,因为我们不习惯在吃便餐的时候喝水或喝茶(只有在中国某些地区有饭间喝茶的习惯)。只有在特殊或正式场合,汤才会作为一道独立的菜被奉上餐桌;即便如此,那也是在 饭后才上桌,又或是在头盘与主菜之间,以清洗味蕾、迎接下一道菜。因此,汤总是很清淡,不宜调入重味。

尽管我们在中国确实有 “甜酸” 菜式,但那应该是经过细致调味的——决不会太甜或太酸,更不会以鸡或蔬菜烹制!主菜配以白饭而非炒饭。在中国,炒饭(以及炒面)只在筵席上出现,是不会与便餐搭配的。

1980年,罗孝建在 Belgravia 开设他的首家 “忆华楼”,并聘请毕金宝为行政总厨。毕师傅出身自名厨世家,祖籍山东,生于上海。他在中国和香港的一流餐馆里接受训练,包括备受推崇的 Mandarin Hotel。1970年代末,他移居伦敦,其后主要在 Golden Duck 工作,直到被罗孝建发掘并共同设计 “忆华楼” 的菜单。很快 “忆华楼” 就成为伦敦首屈一指的中餐馆。

第二年,罗孝建在餐馆旁边建起烹饪学校。那时我已撰写了几本中餐烹饪书,其中一本还是为马莎百货(Marks & Spencer)而写,因此罗孝建邀请我加入其学校的导师队伍。大约同时,英国广播公司(BBC)也与我商谈举办一个中餐烹饪系列节目的事宜。我在他们的演播室里炒了两个简单的菜式,他们似乎对此颇为满意。然而在数周后的某个阶段,他们说我的英语不够清晰,一般观众难以听懂,故而改去美国邀请谭荣辉(Ken Hom)主持该节目。多年后,我在伦敦的一个食物展览上遇到谭荣辉,他告诉大家当时他使用的正是我的食谱——这真是对我极大的抬举!

当几乎所有中餐馆都由男性或夫妻档开设、经营时,女性独资经营者真是稀罕之极。因此,在伦敦苏豪希腊街(Greek Street)拥有 “Yming” 餐馆的 Christine Yau,可谓独树一帜。明苑(Yming)十分成功,而其菜单并不是很正统 —— 每个月,Christine Yau 都会推出一组新菜式。如果当中有哪些菜式受到顾客欢迎,她就会将其加入常规菜单。Christine 也积极参与华人社区事务,并推动 Westminster Kingsway College 成立了中餐烹饪学校。

在此,必须向极有魄力的叶焕荣先生致敬。1960年代初,他从香港来到英国时还是一名年青人。尽管接受过良好教育,他只能找到在中餐馆里当侍应生的工作。 他把两个弟弟也叫到英国,在埃塞克斯 Essex 的 Clacton 一起开了一家外卖店。他注意到,各地几乎每天都有新的中餐馆出现,但却没有足够的供货商为之提供原材料。因此,他们在伯明翰成立了第一家 “荣业行”,其后 很快又在曼彻斯特增设第二家,最终还在伦敦北部及克洛伊顿(Croydon)先后再开两家分店。

这些店铺的独特之处在于,它们不单是大型商店,而是集餐馆、商店及其它服务等各种便利设施于一体的商业中心。来自四面八方的顾客来到这里不止是为了采购食品,更是为了用餐、理发、买衣服或其它东西。在我看来,叶焕荣先生对英国中餐文化的贡献远远超过其它人,因为如果没有他对进口一切必需品的远见,英国中餐就不会有今天的景象。

 

Author 作者

 

Mr Deh-ta Hsiung was born in Beijing and travelled widely throughout China as a teenager. Coming from a family of gourmets and scholars, his interest in food and wine was encouraged as part of his traditional Chinese upbringing.

Deh-ta came to England in 1950 to complete his education at Oxford and in London where he now lives. He is an acknowledged expert on Chinese food and cookery and besides being the author of several best-selling books and a food and wine consultant for Chinese restaurants and food manufacturers, he is also a tutor of international renown. He was a regular teacher at the late Mr Ken Lo's Chinese Cookery School in London, and has taught at the Ballymaloe Cookery School in Co Cork, Ireland, as well as in France, Italy, Finland and as far afield as India, where he was sent by the UN.

 

 

熊德達先生出生於北京,年青時周遊中國各地。他生長於一個學術與美食交集的世家,這傳統中國的環境催生、鼓勵了他對食物與酒的興趣。熊先生於 1949 年來到英國,在牛津完成學業並定居於倫敦。他不但是公認的中國食物及烹調專家,還是暢銷書作者,中餐館、食物商的顧問,以及世界知名的飲食導師。他曾是羅 孝建先生中餐學校的常任導師,也在愛爾蘭的 Ballymalore 烹飪學校任教;曾經任教的其他國家包括法國、義大利、芬蘭,甚至受聯合國委派遠赴印度。

 


熊德达先生出生于北京,年青时周游中国各地。他生长于一个学术与美食交集的世家,这传统中国的环境催生、鼓励了他对食物与酒的兴趣。熊先生于 1949 年来到英国,在牛津完成学业并定居于伦敦。他不但是公认的中国食物及烹调专家,还是畅销书作者,中餐馆、食品商的顾问,以及世界知名的饮食导师。他曾是罗 孝建先生中餐学校的常任导师,也在爱尔兰的 Ballymalore 烹饪学校任教;曾经任教的其它国家包括法国、意大利、芬兰,甚至受联合国委派远赴印度。

 

Translator 譯者

 

Jiali Xu
Project Coordinator. Majored in Chinese Language and Literature, Writing, Folk Literature, and Anthropological Research Methods. With a particular interest in folk culture, she has participated in research projects of Lingnan area (i.e. the south of the Five Ridges), and wrote papers about Cantonese food culture, custom and etiquette, etc.

 


 
徐嘉莉
本項目協調員。教育背景:中國語言與文學、中國現當代文學(寫作學與民間文藝學方向)、人類學研究方法。對民間文學和民俗事象有濃厚興趣,除參與數個嶺南民俗課題的研究與編撰工作外,亦著有論文探討廣東飲食文化、禮俗文化等。
 

 


徐嘉莉
本项目协调员。教育背景:中国语言与文学、中国现当代文学(写作学与民间文艺学方向)、人类学研究方法。对民间文学和民俗事象有浓厚兴趣,除参与数个岭南民俗课题的研究与编撰工作外,亦著有论文探讨广东饮食文化、礼俗文化等。