Timeline

British History

Time

Development of Chinese Food in Britin

1672: 1st Anglo-China trade [1]

1799-1815: Napoleonic Wars [3]

1600s-1840s

17th Century: Tea was the first item of Chinese food to be consumed in quantity in the West. [2:18] The import of Chinese tea has then changed the drinking habit of British people.

1851 Census: 78 Chinese in England & Wales

1850s

1861 Census: 147 Chinese in England & Wales

1860s


1871 Census: 202 Chinese in England & Wales

1870s

By 1880s: Chinese groceries and eating houses appeared in London and Liverpool, patronised by Chinese seamen, dockworkers and students. [2:140]

1880s

1880s: London's first Chinatown emerged around Limehouse where many Chinese sailors had settled. [4]

1884: Chinese food was introduced to the British public at the International Health Exhibition in South Kensington, London. [5]

1891 Census: 582 Chinese in England & Wales

1890s

1896: Li Hongzhang, the most influential diplomat at the time, paid a visit to the UK, the other European countries and the US, which was associated to the controversial invention of chop suey.

 

1900s

1908: The first recorded Chinese restaurant opened in Glasshouse Street, Piccadilly Circus, London, which was called ‘The Chinese Restaurant’. [6]

Chop suey, fishcakes, black jam cakes and dried "Chinese beetles" were available in Liverpool, and attracted some non-Chinese customers. [2:156]

1911 Census: 1,319 Chinese in England & Wales

1910s

1914: Change of Immigration Law [7]

 

1914-1918: World War One [8]

 

 

 

1919: The Cheung clansmen founded a limited-liability company; a group of successful restaurants was under its control. This can be seen as the first step in establishing a Chinese restaurant chain. [9]

1921 Census: 2,419 Chinese in England & Wales

1920s

1920s: Cumquats, ginger, rice-puddings, vermicelli, lychees, mushrooms, etc. were brought to London by Chong Sung from Canton as poet and aesthete Harold Acton's cook. [2:156-157]

1931 Census: 1,934 Chinese in England & Wales

1930s

1930s: Regional dishes of Ningbo, Fuzhou, Hainan, Shantou, Shanghai, etc. were served by ex-Chinese seamen in Liverpool. [2:159]

1938: Start of World War Two [10]

 

1938: Chop suey, chow mein and fried rice were popular with students at the Blue Barn, Cambridge due to their cheap price. [2:157]

 

1939: Simple recipes of some "typical dishes from China" were introduced on BBC broadcast by Jean Sterling; ingredients were available at Shanghai Emporium, Greek Street. [2:158-159]

1940: Start of food rationing [11]

1940s

 

During WWII: The recipe of "Chinese Cake" baked with haricot beans, potatoes, fat boiled bacon, sugar, breadcrumbs and herbs was introduced to Britons. [12]

1945: End of World War Two

 

 

1949: Agnes Ingle struck a positive note on Chinese food regarding its preference, style, methods, etc. in a talk on Woman's Hour on the BBC. [2:188]

1951 Census: 12,523 Chinese in England & Wales

1950s

Early 1950s: Regional dishes were extended by the former Nationalist Chinese embassy staff that remained in Britain and changed to the catering industry after the Communist revolution. [2:170-171]

1954: End of food rationing

 

 

 

1957 or 1958: A three-course meal pattern was established in Chinese restaurants that developed a stylised adaptation to suit British tastes and British purses. [2:179-181]

 

1958: John Koon's Lotus House at Bayswater, London, became Britain's first Chinese takeaway. [13]

 

Late 1950s: Char siu (roast pork), sweet and sour dishes, and egg foo yung (omelettes) first appear on Chinese menus, sometimes alongside curry dishes and a few Western dishes. [2:181]

A wide range of soy sauces and tinned vegetables and fruit was marketed by Amoy. [2:200]

1961 Census: 38,730 Chinese in England & Wales

1960s

1960s: Chinese ingredients were more widely available in Liverpool, Birmingham, Bradford, Middlesborough, Leeds, etc. The main importer from China was Biddle Sawyer of Fitzroy Street, London. [2:198-199]

1962: New Immigration Law [14]

 

 

 

1963: Peking Duck was introduced to Britain.  Princess Margaret and Lord Snowdon endowed Chinese food with fame. [15]

1971 Census: 96,030 Chinese in England & Wales

1970s

1970s: Kenneth Lo organised a Chinese Gourmet Club. [2:181]

The phrase 'Hong Kong style' emerged to indicate a modified Cantonese cuisine that combined 'exotic or expensive ingredients and western catering'. [2:185]

Chinese recipes first appear in women's magazines in Britain.  Large food shops and supermarkets and mainstream manufacturers began to develop this market. [2:200-201]

 

 

Approx. 1970: Plenty of ginger, bean sprouts, dried citrous peel and soy sauce were taught to be used in the Chinese cooks' simple training. [2:175]

 

 

1972: All Chinese ingredients and utensils were allegedly obtainable at Loon Fung in Gerrard Street, London. [2:199]

1981 Census: 154,363 Chinese in England & Wales

1980s

1980s: Regional Chinese food (notably Pekinese or other north Chinese-style food) increased, whose majority customers were said to be European. [2:181]

Blue Dragon's stir-fry sauces in sachets became its most popular innovation. [2:200]

Convenience foods in the form of prepared meals e.g. Crispy Wontons were supplied to Marks & Spencer by Amoy.  [2:200]

 

1983: Yang Sing in Manchester became the first ethnic restaurant to win the coveted Good Food Guide restaurant of the year award. [2:181]

1984: Sino-British Joint Declaration [16]

 

 

1991 Census: 159,936 Chinese in England & Wales

1990s

1990s: Lobster, monkfish and vegetarian set meals were available at more sophisticated and expensive Chinese restaurants, in response to urban development, increasing affluence, greater mobility, and the growth of vegetarianism. [2:181]

The school of Chinese cookery at Westminster College was established; new standards of cooking and presentation of North Chinese food were set. [2:181-182]

Noodles were hailed as the new universal food, and Chinese noodle houses began to appear. [2:182]

Expensive restaurants produced dishes with Chinese cooking methods and materials in an innovative fashion. [2:182-183]

Ken Hom designed menus and children's menus for a restaurant group to promote healthy eating habits from an early age. [2:182]

1993: The sale of Chinese food had a year-on-year increase of 20%, ranking after Indian food as the second most popular ethnic food. Customers developed from using cooking sauces to preparing their own exotic meals. [2:202]

1997: Hong Kong Handover [17]

 

1999: Britain published two books to further explore the therapeutic and philosophical implications of Chinese eating. [2:196]

 

2000s

Early 2000s: 400 oriental products, including noodles and a variety of cooking sauces and bottled sauces, were eventually developed by the Blue Dragon. [2:200]

2001 Census: 247,403 Chinese in England & Wales

2001: A combination of traditional Hakka cuisine and Western ingredients e.g. "Bird's nest and foie gras soup with wolfberry" was available in London. Organic pork was used to attract the organic market. [2:185]

'Regionality' was replacing 'authenticity' as a selling point. Singaporean and Malaysian foods were also included in this context. [2:202]

The Chinese food market in Britain had an increase of 71% over five years.  [2:202-203]

65% of British households owned a wok. [2:203]

2010s

2011 The British Chinese Food Culture oral history project was launched by Ming-Ai (London) Institute, to track the development of Chinese food in the UK.

 

(Compiled by Jili Xu)

歷史年表

英國歷史

年份

英國中餐的發展

1672 年:首次英中貿易 [1]

17991815 年:拿破崙戰爭 [3]

1600 年代

1840 年代

17 世紀:茶葉是西方大量消費的第一項中國食品 [2:18]。中國茶葉的進口改變了英國人的飲用習慣。

1851 人口普查:有78 名華人在英格蘭與威爾士

1850 年代

1861 人口普查:有147 名華人在英格蘭與威爾士

1860 年代

1871 人口普查:有202 名華人在英格蘭與威爾士

1870 年代

1880 年代前:倫敦與利物浦已有中國雜貨鋪與食肆,其顧客為華人海員、碼頭工人與學生。[2:140]

1880 年代

1880 年代:眾多華人海員聚居的萊姆豪斯一帶成為倫敦第一個華埠。[4]

1884 年:在倫敦南肯辛頓舉辦的 “國際健康展覽” 首次將中餐介紹給英國公眾。[5]

1891 人口普查:有582 名華人在英格蘭與威爾士

1890 年代

1896 年:當時最有影響力的外交官李鴻章出訪英國及歐洲其他國家與美國。有人認為 “雜碎” 菜式正是在此次出訪中誕生的。

1900 年代

1908 年:首家被登記在案的中餐館在倫敦匹卡迪利廣場玻璃屋街開張,其名為 “中國餐館” 。[6]

雜碎、魚餅、黑果醬糕餅與 “中國甲蟲” 乾在利物浦有售,並吸引到一些非華人顧客。[2:156]

1911 人口普查:有1,319 名華人在英格蘭與威爾士

1910 年代

1914 年:移民法改動 [7]

 

19141918 年:第一次世界大戰 [8]

 

1919 年:張氏族人成立有限責任公司,將一批經營有道的餐館攬入麾下。這可視為英國華人創立中餐館連鎖店的第一步。 [9]

1921 人口普查:有2,419 名華人在英格蘭與威爾士

1920 年代

1920 年代:廣州廚師 Chong Sung 被詩人、美學家 Harold Acton 聘為家廚,將柑橘、姜、粽、粉絲、荔枝、蘑菇等食材帶到倫敦。[2:156-157]

1931 人口普查:有1,934 名華人在英格蘭與威爾士

1930 年代

1930 年代:脫離航海業的華人中餐業者在利物浦推出寧波、福州、海南、汕頭、上海等地方菜系。[2:159]

1938 年:第二次世界大戰爆發 [10]

 

1938 年:劍橋 “藍穀倉” 中餐館的雜碎、炒麵和炒飯由於價格低廉,深受學生歡迎。[2:157]

1939 年:Jean Sterling 在英國廣播公司電臺節目中介紹一些簡單的 “經典中餐” 食譜;食材在倫敦希臘街的 “上海商場” 有售。[2:158-159]

1940 年:開始食品配給制 [11]

1940 年代

二戰期間:一種以扁豆、馬鈴薯、肥膩的煮鹹肉、糖、麵包屑和香草烘焙而成的 “中國糕餅” 食譜被介紹給英國人。[12]

1945 年:第二次世界大戰結束

 

 

1949 年:在英國廣播公司的 “婦女時光” 節目中,Agnes Ingle 對中餐的常用材料、風格、烹飪方法等給予了正面評價。 [2:188]

1951 人口普查:有12,523 名華人在英格蘭與威爾士

1950 年代

1950 年代早期:一部份前國民黨中國大使館員工在共產主義革命後留在英國,改行從事中餐業,拓寬了地方菜系。[2:170-171]

1954 年:結束食品配給制

 

1957 或 1958 年:中餐館確立了三道菜用餐模式,以適應英國人的口味和消費水平。[2:179-181]

1958 年:John Koon 在倫敦 Bayswter 經營的 Lotus House 成為英國第一間中餐外賣店。[13]

1950 年代後期:叉燒、甜酸菜式和芙蓉(炒蛋)菜式首次出現在中餐餐牌上;有些中餐館也經營咖喱菜肴和一些西方菜式。 [2:181]

淘大公司推出種類繁多的醬油及蔬菜、水果罐頭產品。[2:200]

1961 人口普查:有38,730 名華人在英格蘭與威爾士

1960 年代

1960 年代:中餐原料在利物浦、伯明翰、布莱福、米德爾斯堡、利兹等地供應增加。主要進口商是位於倫敦菲茨羅伊街的 Biddle Sawyer。[2:198-199]

1962 年:新移民法實施 [14]

 

1963 年: “北京鴨” 首次進入英國。瑪格麗特公主與其丈夫斯諾頓勳爵的光顧使中餐名噪一時。[15]

1971 人口普查:有96,030 名華人在英格蘭與威爾士

1970 年代

1970 年代:羅孝建組建中國美食家俱樂部。[2:181]

“港式” 一詞出現,意指融合了 “異域或昂貴食材與西方飲食” 的改良粤菜。[2:185]

中餐食譜首次在英國婦女雜誌中出現。大型食品店與超級市場及主流製造商開始拓展這一市場。[2:200-201]

 

 

約 1970 年:在簡單的就業培訓中,中餐廚師被教導使用大量姜、芽菜、陳皮與酱油。[2:175]

1972 年:據說中餐所有食材與用具均可在倫敦爵祿街的 “龍鳳行” 買到。[2:199]

1981 人口普查:有154,363 名華人在英格蘭與威爾士

1980 年代

1980 年代:中餐地方菜系(尤其是京菜或其他北方菜)增加,其主要顧客據說是歐洲人。[2:181]

青龍公司的袋裝快炒醬汁成為其最受歡迎的創新。[2:200]

淘大公司向瑪莎百貨供應炸雲吞等現成的方便食品。[2:200]

1983 年:曼徹斯特的 “Yang Sing” 成為首家贏得眾人夢寐以求的《美食指南》年度大獎的民族風味餐館。[2:181]

1984 年:《中英聯合聲明》簽署 [16]

 

 

1991 人口普查:有159,936 名華人在英格蘭與威爾士

1990 年代

1990 年代:由於城市發展、財富增加、社會流動性加大及素食主義的發展,高檔中餐館開始使用龍蝦、僧鯊等食材,並推出素食套餐。[2:181]

西敏寺大學成立中廚學校;華北菜系的烹飪與賣相有了新標準。[2:181-182]

麵條被譽為新的大眾食品;中國麵館開始出現。[2:182]

大英帝國勳章得主譚榮輝設計兒童餐牌,提倡從小形成健康飲食習慣。[2:182]

1993 年:中餐銷售年增長額達 20%,成為僅次於印度餐的最受歡迎少數族裔食品。顧客從簡單使用烹飪醬汁進步到能烹製出具有異國風味的菜肴。[2:202]

1997 年:香港主權回歸 [17]

 

1999 年:英國出版两本進一步探討中餐食療作用與哲學內涵的書。[2:196]

 

2000 年代

20 世紀初:青龍公司經過逐步發展,已擁有各種麵條、調料、瓶裝醬料等 400 種東方產品。[2:200]

2001 人口普查:有247,403 名華人在英格蘭與威爾士

 

2001 年:倫敦出現傳統客家菜與西方食材的融合,例如 “燕窩鵝肝杞子湯” 。中餐館開始使用有機豬肉以吸引偏愛有機食材的人群。[2:185]

“地域性” 取代 “正宗” 成為中餐賣點;新加坡與馬來西亞菜系因此也被包括在中餐之中。[2:202]

65% 英國家庭擁有烹調中餐必備的鑊。[2:203]

2010 年代

2011 年:明愛(倫敦)學院開展 “英國中餐文化” 口述歷史項目,追溯中餐在英國的發展歷程。

 

(徐嘉莉 編撰)

历史年表

英国历史

年份

英国中餐的发展

1672 年:首次英中贸易 [1]

 

17991815 年:拿破仑战争 [3]

1600 年代

1840 年代

17 世纪:茶叶是西方大量消费的第一项中国食品 [2:18]。中国茶叶的进口改变了英国人的饮用习惯。

1851 人口普查:有78 名华人在英格兰与威尔士

1850 年代

1861 人口普查:有147 名华人在英格兰与威尔士

1860 年代

1871 人口普查:有202 名华人在英格兰与威尔士

1870 年代

1880 年代前:伦敦与利物浦已有中国杂货铺与食肆,其顾客为华人海员、码头工人与学生。[2:140]

1880 年代

1880 年代:众多华人海员聚居的莱姆豪斯一带成为伦敦第一个华埠。[4]

1884 年:在伦敦南肯辛顿举办的 “国际健康展览” 首次将中餐介绍给英国公众。[5]

1891 人口普查:有582 名华人在英格兰与威尔士

1890 年代

1896 年:当时最有影响力的外交官李鸿章出访英国及欧洲其他国家与美国。有人认为 “杂碎” 菜式正是在此次出访中诞生的。

1900 年代

1908 年:首家被登记在案的中餐馆在伦敦匹卡迪利广场玻璃屋街开张,其名为 “中国餐馆” 。[6]

杂碎、鱼饼、黑果酱糕饼与 “中国甲虫” 干在利物浦有售,并吸引到一些非华人顾客。[2:156]

1911 人口普查:有1,319 名华人在英格兰与威尔士

1910 年代

1914 年:移民法改动 [7]

 

19141918 年:第一次世界大战 [8]

 

1919 年:张氏族人成立有限责任公司,将一批经营有道的餐馆揽入麾下。这可视为英国华人创立中餐馆连锁店的第一步。[9]

1921 人口普查:有2,419 名华人在英格兰与威尔士

1920 年代

1920 年代:广州厨师 Chong Sung 被诗人、美学家 Harold Acton 聘为家厨,将柑橘、姜、粽、粉丝、荔枝、蘑菇等食材带到伦敦。[2:156-157]

1931 人口普查:有1,934 名华人在英格兰与威尔士

1930 年代

1930 年代:脱离航海业的华人中餐业者在利物浦推出宁波、福州、海南、汕头、上海等地方菜系。[2:159]

1938 年:第二次世界大战爆发 [10]

 

1938 年:剑桥 “蓝谷仓” 中餐馆的杂碎、炒面和炒饭由于价格低廉,深受学生欢迎。[2:157]

1939 年:Jean Sterling 在英国广播公司电台节目中介绍一些简单的 “经典中餐” 食谱;食材在伦敦希腊街的 “上海商场” 有售。[2:158-159]

1940 年:开始食品配给制 [11]

1940 年代

二战期间:一种以扁豆、马铃薯、肥腻的煮咸肉、糖、面包屑和香草烘焙而成的 “中国糕饼” 食谱被介绍给英国人。[12]

1945 年:第二次世界大战结束

 

 

1949 年:在英国广播公司的 “妇女时光” 节目中,Agnes Ingle 对中餐的常用材料、风格、烹饪方法等给予了正面评价。 [2:188]

1951 人口普查:有12,523 名华人在英格兰与威尔士

1950 年代

1950 年代早期:一部分前国民党中国大使馆员工在共产主义革命后留在英国,改行从事中餐业,拓宽了地方菜系。[2:170-171]

1954 年:结束食品配给制

 

1957 或 1958 年:中餐馆确立了三道菜的用餐模式,以适应英国人的口味和消费水平。[2:179-181]

1958年:John Koon 在伦敦 Bayswter 经营的 Lotus House 成为英国第一间中餐外卖店。[13]

1950 年代后期:叉烧、甜酸菜式和芙蓉(炒蛋)菜式首次出现在中餐餐牌上;有些中餐馆也经营咖喱菜肴和一些西方菜式。 [2:181]

淘大公司推出种类繁多的酱油及蔬菜、水果罐头产品。[2:200]

1961 人口普查:有38,730 名华人在英格兰与威尔士

1960 年代

1960 年代:中餐原料在利物浦、伯明翰、布莱福、米德尔斯堡、利兹等地供应增加。主要进口商是位于伦敦菲茨罗伊街的 Biddle Sawyer。[2:198-199]

1962 年:新移民法实施 [14]

 

1963 年:“北京鸭” 首次进入英国。玛格丽特公主与斯诺顿勋爵的光顾使中餐名噪一时。[15]

1971 人口普查:有96,030 名华人在英格兰与威尔士

1970 年代

1970 年代:罗孝建组建中国美食家俱乐部。[2:181]

“港式” 一词出现,意指融合了 “异域或昂贵食材与西方饮食” 的改良粤菜。[2:185]

中餐食谱首次在英国妇女杂志中出现。大型食品店与超级市场及主流制造商开始拓展这一市场。[2:200-201]

 

 

约 1970 年:在简单的就业培训中,中餐厨师被教导使用大量姜、芽菜、陈皮与酱油。[2:175]

1972 年:据说中餐所有食材与用具均可在伦敦爵禄街的 “龙凤行” 买到。[2:199]

1981 人口普查:有154,363 名华人在英格兰与威尔士

1980 年代

1980 年代:中餐地方菜系(尤其是京菜或其他北方菜)增加,其主要顾客据说是欧洲人。[2:181]

青龙公司的袋装快炒酱汁成为其最受欢迎的创新。[2:200]

淘大公司向玛莎百货供应炸云吞等现成的方便食品。[2:200]

1983 年:曼彻斯特的 “Yang Sing” 成为首家赢得众人梦寐以求的《美食指南》年度大奖的民族风味餐馆。[2:181]

1984 年:《中英联合声明》签署 [16]

 

 

1991 人口普查:159,936 名华人在英格兰与威尔士

1990 年代

1990 年代:由于城市发展、财富增加、社会流动性加大及素食主义的发展,高档中餐馆开始使用龙虾、僧鲨等食材,并推出素食套餐。[2:181]

西敏寺大学成立中厨学校;华北菜系的烹饪与卖相有了新标准。[2:181-182]

面条被誉为新的大众食品;中国面馆开始出现。[2:182]

大英帝国勋章得主谭荣辉设计儿童餐牌,提倡从小形成健康饮食习惯。[2:182]

1993 年:中餐销售年增长额达 20%,成为仅次于印度餐的最受欢迎少数族裔食品。顾客从简单使用烹饪酱汁进步到能烹制出具有异国风味的菜肴。[2:202]

1997 年:香港主权回歸 [17]

 

1999 年:英国出版两本进一步探讨中餐食疗作用与哲学内涵的书。[2:196]

 

2000 年代

2001 年:伦敦出现传统客家菜与西方食材的融合,例如 “燕窝鹅肝杞子汤” 。中餐馆开始使用有机猪肉以吸引偏爱有机食材的人群。[2:185]

“地域性” 取代 “正宗” 成为中餐卖点;新加坡与马来西亚菜系因此也被包括在中餐之中。[2:202]

65% 英国家庭拥有烹调中餐必备的镬。[2:203]

2001 人口普查:有247,403 名华人在英格兰与威尔士

20 世纪初:青龙公司经过逐步发展,已拥有各种面条、调料、瓶装酱料等400种东方产品。[2:200]

 

2010年代

2011年:明爱(伦敦)学院开展 “英国中餐文化” 口述历史项目,追溯中餐在英国的发展历程。

 

(徐嘉莉 编撰)

 

Notes 註釋

[1] British Library, time unknown. China Trade and the East India Company. http://www.bl.uk/reshelp/findhelpregion/asia/china/guidesources/chinatrade/index.html
     As the result of Anglo-China trade, the first Chinese sailors came to the UK, living in and around Limehouse, London, in late 1600s.  See: British Museum, 2008.
Chinese Diaspora in Britain. http://www.britishmuseum.org/pdf/Chinese%20diaspora%20in%20Britain%20201008.pdf.

[2] Roberts, J. A. G., 2002. China to Chinatown: Chinese Food in the West.  London: Reaktion Books Ltd.

[3] Napoleonic Wars increased the employment of Chinese sailors to replace the British sailors who had been called up to the navy.  See: British Museum, 2008. ChineseDiaspora in Britain. http://www.britishmuseum.org/pdf/Chinese%20diaspora%20in%20Britain%20201008.pdf.

[4] British Museum, 2008. Chinese Diaspora in Britain. http://www.britishmuseum.org/pdf/Chinese%20diaspora%20in%20Britain%20201008.pdf.

[5] Anon., 1884. The Health Exhibition Literature, 1884. London: William Clowes & Sons, Limited.

[6] Anon. Construction Work Permit. London Metropolitan Archive.

[7] The 'British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act' of 1914 allowed people to apply for a certificate of naturalisation as long as certain criteria were met. This made it easier for foreign citizens to settle in the UK.  See: Office of Public Sector Information, 1914. British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act, 1914. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1914/17/pdfs/ukpga_19140017_en.pdf.

[8] During World War One, more Chinese sailors were recruited to British ships as British sailors were recruited to the army.  Chinese catering was slowly developing although was not dominant.  See: The Evolution and History of British Chinese Workforce, 2011. Catering. http://www.chineseworkforce.ming-ai.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&;view=article&id=89&Itemid=79.

[9] ZakKeith.com, 2010. The Chinese in Britain, History Timeline. http://www.zakkeith.com/articles,blogs,forums/chinese-in-britain-history-timeline.htm.

[10] During World War Two, Chinese sailors working on British ships increased sharply, and some of them jumped ship and opened restaurants later.  See: The Evolution and History of British Chinese Workforce, 2011. Sailing, http://www.chineseworkforce.mingai.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&;view=article&id=89&Itemid=79 , and The Evolution and History of British Chinese Workforce, 2011. Catering. http://www.chineseworkforce.ming-ai.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&;view=article&id=89&Itemid=79.

[11] BBC, 2011.World War Two Rationing in Britain.http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A533918;
     Cookit!, 2009.World War 2: food facts. http://cookit.e2bn.org/historycookbook/20-97-world-war-2-Food-facts.html ;
     Mandy Barrow, 2010. Food Rationing. http://resources.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/homework/war/kit.html ;and
     Mandy Barrow, 2010.
Rationing Timeline. http://resources.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/homework/war/rationing4.html.

[12] Served with Brussels sprouts and brown gravy, this "Chinese Cake" was one of the published recipes named after wartime allies, and used little meat due to food shortages and rationing. See 2:160.

[13] Edwards, 2008. Making the Chinese sexy. The Telegraph, [online] 1 Aug. available at: <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/foodanddrink/3344800/Making-the-Chinese-sexy.html>.
     Cf. The Restaurant Hall of Fame, time unknown.
History of Chinese, Thai & Other Oriental Restaurants in Britain.
     However, according to our interviews in January 2010, some Chinese people believe that the first Chinese takeaway in the UK was Local Friends at Limehouse.

[14] The new law narrowed the categories under which Commonwealth citizens were allowed to enter Britain, i.e. it became harder to obtain citizenship, hence caused the first migrant wave from Hong Kong by the early 1960s.

[15] Rayner, J., 2002.The Sweet and Sour Revolution. The Observer, [online], 10 November. http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2002/nov/10/foodanddrink.shopping6

[16] The Declaration stated that China would resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong (including Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, and the New Territories) with effect from 1 July 1977.  See: Gov.cn, 2007. Full Text of Sino-British Joint Declaration. http://www.gov.cn/english/2007-06/14/content_649468.htm.

[17] This marked the end of more than 150 years of British colonial rule in Hong Kong.

 


 

[1] British Library.  China Trade and the Esat India Company.  n.d. [2012-04-25].  http://www.bl.uk/reshelp/findhelpregion/si/chin/guidesources/chintrde/index.html.

        17 世紀晚期,英中貿易為英國帶來了第一批華人海員,他們居住在倫敦萊姆豪斯(蘭豪思)及其周邊地帶。參見註釋 5 。

[2] Roberts J. . G.  China to Chinatown: Chinese Food in the West.  London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2002.

[3] 拿破崙戰爭使英國船隊雇用的華人海員人數增加,以填補英國海員被徵召到海軍後出現的空缺。參見註釋 5 。

[4] Anon.  The Health Exhibition Literature, 1884.  London: William Clowes & Sons Ltd., 1884.

[5] British Museum.  Chinese Dispora in Britain.  2008  [2012-04-25].  http://www.britishmuseum.org/pdf/Chinese%20diaspora%20in%20Britain%20201008.pdf.

[6] Anon.  Construction Work Permit.  [document]  London: London Metropolitan Archive, n.d.

[7] 1914 年的《英國國籍與外僑身份法案》("British Nationlity and Status of Aliens Act") 允許外國人在達到一定條件的前提下可申請歸化證書。外國公民因而更易於在英國定居。參見:Office of Public Sector Information.  British Nationlity And Status of Aliens Act, 1914.  1914 [2012-04-25].  http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1914/17/pdfs/ukpga_19140017_en.pdf.

[8] 在第一次世界大戰期間,由於英國海員被徵召入伍,更多華人海員加入英國船隊;中餐業得以緩慢發展。參見:英國華人職業演變史.  餐飲業.  2011 [2012-04-25].  http://www.chineseworkforce.ming-i.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&view=rticle&id=89&Itemid=79.

[9] ZakKeith.com.  The Chinese in Britain, History Timeline.  2010 [2012-04-25].  http://www.zakkeith.com/articles,blogs,forums/chinese-in-britain-history-timeline.htm.

[10] 在第二次世界大戰期間,在英國船隊工作的華人海員急劇增加,其中一部分後來離船開設餐館。參見:英國華人職業演變史.  航海業.  2011 [2012-04-25]. http://www.chineseworkforce.ming-ai.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&;;view=article&id=86&Itemid=78 餐飲業.  2011 [2012-04-25].  http://www.chineseworkforce.ming-i.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&;view=rticle&id=89&Itemid=79.

[11] BBC.  World War Two Rationing in Britain.  2011 [2012-04-25].  http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A533918
        Cookit!.  World War 2: food facts.  2009 [2012-04-25].  http://cookit.e2bn.org/historycookbook/20-97-world-war-2-Food-facts.html
        Barrow M.  Food Rationing.  2010 [2012-04-25]. http://resources.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/homework/war/kit.html;以及
        Barrow M.  Rationing Timeline.  2010 [2012-04-25].  http://resources.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/homework/war/rationing4.html.

[12] 這種 "中國糕餅" 是以盟國命名的戰時發行食譜之一。由於食物短缺及配給制度,它只使用少量的肉,食用時配以球芽甘藍與肉汁。參見 2:160。

[13] Edwards,  Making the Chinese sexy.  The Telegraph, 2008-08-01 [2012-04-25].  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/foodanddrink/3344800/Making-the-Chinese-sexy.html.
        參閱 The Restaurnt Hll of Fame.  History of Chinese, Thai & Other Oriental Restaurants in Britain.  n.d. [2012-04-25]
        不過,在我們進行的非正式訪談中,有華人認為英國第一家中餐外賣店是位於倫敦萊姆豪斯(蘭豪思)的 Local Friends, Mok.  Discussion on British Chinese catering industry.  [conversation] (Personal communication, January 2010).

[14] 新法令縮小了獲准進入英國的英聯邦國家公民的類別,也就是說,要獲得英國公民身份將比以前困難。在此影響下,1960 年代初期出現了第一次香港移民潮。

[15] Rayner J.  The Sweet and Sour Revolution.  The Observer, 2002-11-10 [2012-04-25].  http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2002/nov/10/foodanddrink.shopping6.

[16] 根據該《聲明》內容,中國自 1997 年 7 月 1 日起對香港地區(包括香港島、九龍和新界)恢復行使主權。參見:新華網.  中英關於香港問題的聯合聲明.  n.d. [2012-04-25].  http://news.xinhuanet.com/ziliao/2004-04/01/content_1396234.htm.

[17] 此事件標誌著英國對香港一百五十多年的殖民統治結束。

 

alt

 

[1] British Library.  China Trade and the East Indi Company.  n.d. [2012-04-25].  http://www.bl.uk/reshelp/findhelpregion/asia/china/guidesources/chinatrade/index.html

17 世紀晚期,英中貿易為英國帶來了第一批華人海員,他們居住在倫敦萊姆豪斯(蘭豪思)及其周邊地帶。參見註釋 5

[2] Roberts, J. A. G., 2002. China to Chinatown: Chinese Food in the West.  London: Reaktion Books Ltd.

[3] 拿破崙戰爭使英國船隊雇用的華人海員人數增加,以填補英國海員被徵召到海軍後出現的空缺。參見註釋 5

[4] Anon., 1884. The Health Exhibition Literature, 1884. London: William Clowes & Sons, Limited.

[5] British Museum, 2008. Chinese Diaspora in Britain. http://www.britishmuseum.org/pdf/Chinese%20diaspora%20in%20Britain%20201008.pdf.

[6] Anon. Construction Work Permit. London Metropolitan Archive.

[7] 1914 年的《英國國籍與外僑身份法案》("British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act"允許外國人在達到一定條件的前提下可申請歸化證書。外國公民因而更易於在英國定居。參見:Office of Public Sector Information, 1914. British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act, 1914. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1914/17/pdfs/ukpga_19140017_en.pdf.

[8] 在第一次世界大戰期間,由於英國海員被徵召入伍,更多華人海員加入英國船隊;中餐業得以緩慢發展。參見:英國華人職業演變史.  餐飲業.  2011 [2012-04-25].  http://www.chineseworkforce.ming-ai.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&;view=article&id=89&Itemid=79.

[9] ZakKeith.com, 2010. The Chinese in Britain, History Timeline. http://www.zakkeith.com/articles,blogs,forums/chinese-in-britain-history-timeline.htm

[10] 在第二次世界大戰期間,在英國船隊工作的華人海員急劇增加,其中一部分後來離船開設餐館。參見:英國華人職業演變史.  航海業.  2011 [2012-04-25]. http://www.chineseworkforce.ming-ai.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&;view=article&id=86&Itemid=78 餐飲業2011 [2012-04-25]. http://www.chineseworkforce.ming-ai.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&;view=article&id=89&Itemid=79

[11] BBC, 2011.World War Two Rationing in Britain.http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A533918
     
Cookit!, 2009.World War 2: food facts. http://cookit.e2bn.org/historycookbook/20-97-world-war-2-Food-facts.html ;
    
Mandy Barrow, 2010. Food Rationing. http://resources.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/homework/war/kit.html and
    
Mandy Barrow, 2010. Rationing Timeline. http://resources.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/homework/war/rationing4.html.

[12] 這種"中國糕餅" 是以盟國命名的戰時發行食譜之一。由於食物短缺及配給制度,它只使用少量的肉,食用時配以球芽甘藍與肉汁。參見2160

[13] Edwards, 2008. Making the Chinese sexy. The Telegraph, [online] 1 Aug. available at: <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/foodanddrink/3344800/Making-the-Chinese-sexy.html>.
        參閱The Restaurant Hall of Fame, time unknown. History of Chinese, Thai & Other Oriental Restaurants in Britain.
       
不過,在我們進行的非正式訪談中,有華人認為英國第一家中餐外賣店是位於倫敦萊姆豪斯(蘭豪思)的Local Friends, Mok.  Discussion on British Chinese catering industry.  [conversation] (Personal communication, January 2010).

[14] 新法令縮小了獲准進入英國的英聯邦國家公民的類別,也就是說,要獲得英國公民身份將比以前困難。在此影響下,1960 年代初期出現了第一次香港移民潮

[15] Rayner,J., 2002.The Sweet and Sour Revolution. The Observer, [online], 10 November http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2002/nov/10/foodanddrink.shopping6.

[16] 根據該《聲明》內容,中國自1997 7 1 日起對香港地區(包括香港島、九龍和新界)恢復行使主權。參見:新華網.  中英關於香港問題的聯合聲明.  n.d. [2012-04-25].   http://www.gov.cn/english/2007-06/14/content_649468.htm.

[17] 此事件標誌著英國對香港一百五十多年的殖民統治結束